Data acquired from the United States Apparent and Trademark Appointment (USPTO) shows that women authority beneath patents compared to men. Alone 10.3% of patents accepted in the US in 1998 had at atomic one changeable inventor. In 2001, women accounted for 8.8% of patents filed by Americans at the European Apparent Office. In 2005, the admeasurement alone to 8.2%. Countries with the accomplished admeasurement of women filing patents at the European apparent appointment were Spain (12.3%) and France (10.2%), while those with the everyman admeasurement were Germany and Austria, with 4.7% and 3.2% respectively. Overall the patenting amount amid women at the USPTO added from 2.7% in 1976 to 10.8% in 2013.The gender gap in patenting raises apropos that the aberration reflects gender bigotry and inefficient use of avant-garde changeable accommodation as against to absorption differing tastes by gender.
For an abstraction of an apparatus to be patented, it should not be already about available, and it should not be declared in a antecedent patent. Ideas that accommodated the belief again accept to abide a apparent chase to ascertain that the abstraction is absolutely unique. Chase fees can ambit amid $30 and $600, depending on the complication of the invention. It would additionally depend on the admeasurement of the article applying for the patent. When the chase after-effects appearance that the abstraction had not been ahead patented, again one can administer for either a conditional apparent (which delays assay and associated costs) or a non-provisional apparent (which is advised afore arising of a patent). A conditional apparent costs between$65 and $260 and lasts for 12 months.
Non-provisional patents booty added time and accomplishment as the appliance has to accommodate a acknowledgment of the apparatus (specification) and claims. Non-provisional apparent fees can ambit from $300 to $1,960. Surcharges for backward submission, an addendum of time, an accelerated exam, and added adapted requests can, however, admission costs by bags of dollars. If the appliance is rejected, the examiner gives the appellant affidavit for the bounce and an befalling to accomplish amendments or accomplish objections. If the abstraction is alone twice, the appellant can abode the decision. If the apparent is ultimately granted, one is adapted to pay an affair fee in the ambit of $140 to $960 and a $300 advertisement fee. To accumulate the apparent in force, aliment fees accept to be paid. For a apparent abiding 12 years or more, applicants pay aliment fees that ambit from $3000 to over $12, 000. Hiring apparent attorneys to admonition cross the action can admission costs by bags of dollars.
Studies accept apparent that women are beneath acceptable to be accepted a apparent compared to men and are additionally beneath acceptable to authorization or commercialize patents accepted to them. To abate the gender patenting gap, one requires an compassionate of the affidavit abaft the under-representation of women amid apparent holders to bigger abode the obstacles currently inhibiting women anatomy patenting.
To best inventors, the apparent appliance action is a chancy adventure because it is expensive. Commercialization of the apparent can aftereffect in cogent budgetary gain. In some instances, banking rewards can, however, be outweighed by apparent appliance costs. The accumulated costs can affectation a cogent obstacle for those who ambition to apparent an idea. Banking barriers are acceptable greater for women because they tend to accept admission to beneath banking assets compared to men. The claiming is affronted by the actuality that women acquire beneath than men. In 2014, women alive full-time jobs all year annular becoming aloof 80 cents on the dollar compared to men. Women are additionally beneath acceptable to accept admission to able start-up basic and alfresco disinterestedness to accounts their ventures. In 2012, added than one in three businesses endemic by women had no admission to start-up capital.
On the added hand, about eight in ten businesses endemic by men had admission to capital. Men are additionally four times added acceptable to admission alien disinterestedness for their business compared to women. In 2010, the admeasurement of alfresco disinterestedness in men-owned businesses was about 12.8% compared to aloof 3% in women-owned businesses. Women were added acceptable to accounts their adventure through buyer debt and disinterestedness (at 8% and 12.7% respectively) compared to men (with buyer debt and disinterestedness at 4% and 9.1% respectively).
Women are about underrepresented in STEM fields (science, technology, engineering, and math). Women additionally annual for aloof a division of the STEM workforce. Despite a ample admission in educational accomplishment amid women about to men, the alterity has remained affiliated over the accomplished decade. A acceleration in the cardinal of graduates in STEM fields statistically has a absolute appulse on apparent activity. An admission in the allotment of non-Stem, on the added hand, does not. The patenting gender gap can be affiliated to the beyond arrangement of educational and anatomic segregation. A contempo abstraction analytical the gender patenting aberration begin that alone 7% of women’s underrepresentation in accountant and commercialized patenting could be attributed to the underrepresentation of women in science and engineering fields (S&E). The abstraction additionally begin that 78% of the bartering patenting gap was due to low patenting ante amid women with S&E degrees. The actual 15% was attributed to lower patenting ante amid women after S&E degrees. The after-effects of the abstraction advance that STEM apprenticeship is not the alone disciplinarian of the patenting gender gap. The after-effects announce that while accretion women’s representation in axis fields is essential, eliminating obstacles to patenting for women with S&E degrees would be added able in bridging the gap.
Studies accept begin that amusing and breezy ties aural industry organizations can decidedly enhance artefact addition and ability exchange. Structural arrangement characteristics, including the inventor’s axis in their arrangement and their role, bridging gaps in the network, acerb admission decisions fabricated by firms to accompany accurate areas of research. Rich networks accord inventors admission to added information, which increases the affection of analysis and patenting rates. Admission to a coach or a associate with a patenting acquaintance can additionally be accessible to inventors. Due to exclusion from STEM fields (dating aback centuries), women scientists accept bound admission to all-encompassing networks. Therefore, women abridgement admission to acceptable resource-rich networks, which acceptable impedes their patenting activity. Networks are decidedly important for bookish scientists as the acreage has added centralized networks, area best scientists are affiliated to one or two top scientists. Studies accept begin that men are added centrally amid in networks compared to women, accent bookish women’s borderline cachet in bookish co-patenting networks.
Society-level gender socialization establishes proscriptions and prescriptions of who men and women are and what they do. The class of “woman” can, therefore, proscribe assertive norms for communication. For example, women ability be added afraid to allege up in meetings, decidedly those composed alone of men. When women who do allege are about aback abandoned or disconnected by men. Greater accord of men in aboriginal academic, bartering science meant that the role of academic, bartering scientists was gradually complete as male, finer black the accord of women. Women who participate in the fields are added acceptable to appearance themselves as beneath competent compared to their macho counterparts.
Studies accept begin a gendered attitude appear amalgam patenting action in bookish careers. Women about acquaint that patenting reduces the time meant for students, teaching, and added obligations to the university, such as authoritative work. Men, on the added hand, anticipate that patenting helps advance their teaching. Women are additionally added acceptable to call obstacles and challenges, such as acclimation assorted career elements that arrest their career advance compared to men who appearance apparent decisions as unproblematic and apprenticed by translational interests. Women additionally accurate affair over the accessible furnishings of patenting on adroitness responsibilities while men accurate a abridgement of affair over abrogating impacts on their careers. Sexism and misogyny additionally present cogent challenges that arrest apparent pursuit.
Women are about beheld as caregivers. Studies accept begin that changeable bookish scientists with accouchement are beneath acceptable to accompany patents compared to their macho counterparts.
Institutionalized abutment for women’s patenting action is basic back they about abridgement able assets and admission to networks. Women who abridgement advantages accompanying to claimed networks about-face to university technology offices or their companies for admonition on the patenting process, advice, and encouragement, while men about await on their networks. Women who are not affiliated with a aggregation or university and about accept beneath assets they can tap. Institutional abutment is additionally acute as it provides analytical allotment bare in the following of patents.
Addressing challenges faced by women in the following of patents requires a cultural about-face in attitudes. Experts additionally accept that systems and abstracts accoutrement should be developed that bigger clue the advance of women in the patenting process. Women and girls who are absorbed in STEM fields should accept able support. The abutment should not alone focus on advance and mentorship but should additionally abode systemic barriers women face, including apparent bigotry and harassment, sexism, and misogyny. Organizations should authorize structures that ensure able administration as able-bodied as adapted after-effects for aggravation and abominable behavior. Experts additionally acclaim the enactment of family-friendly abode behavior that allure and absorb accomplished changeable employees. Institutions should animate apparent pursuits and advance women inventors and entrepreneurs.
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