August 31, 1955
The appellation “artificial intelligence” is coined in a angle for a “2 month, 10 man abstraction of bogus intelligence” submitted by John McCarthy (Dartmouth College), Marvin Minsky (Harvard University), Nathaniel Rochester (IBM), and Claude Shannon (Bell Telephone Laboratories). The workshop, which took abode a year later, in July and August 1956, is about accustomed as the official birthdate of the new field.
The angle authentic what its authors meant by “artificial intelligence”:
An attack will be fabricated to acquisition how to accomplish machines use language, anatomy abstractions and concepts, break kinds of problems now aloof for humans, and beforehand themselves. … For the present purpose the bogus intelligence botheration is taken to be that of authoritative a apparatus behave in agency that would be alleged able if a animal were so behaving.
And it promised results:
We anticipate that a cogent beforehand can be fabricated in one or added of these problems if a anxiously alleged accumulation of scientists assignment on it calm for a summer.
In July 13-15, 2006, the Dartmouth Bogus Intelligence Conference: The Next Fifty Years ([email protected]), actual the 50th ceremony of the aboriginal “Dartmouth Conference.” Five of the aboriginal ten attendees were present: Marvin Minsky, Ray Solomonoff, Oliver Selfridge, Trenchard More, and John McCarthy. The appointment director, James Moor, appear a arbitrary address (PDF) in AI Magazine. It reads, in part:
Dating the alpha of any movement is difficult, but the Dartmouth Summer Analysis Activity of 1956 is generally taken as the accident that accomplished AI as a analysis discipline. John McCarthy, a mathematics assistant at Dartmouth at the time, had been aghast that the affidavit in Automata Studies, which he co-edited with Claude Shannon, did not say added about the possibilities of computers possessing intelligence. Thus, in the angle accounting by John McCarthy, Marvin Minsky, Claude Shannon, and Nathaniel Rochester for the 1956 event, McCarthy wanted, as he explained at [email protected], “to attach the banderole to the mast.” McCarthy is accustomed for bogus the byword “artificial intelligence” and solidifying the acclimatization of the field. It is absorbing to brainstorm whether the acreage would accept been any altered had it been alleged “computational intelligence” or any of a cardinal of added attainable labels.
Five of the attendees from the aboriginal activity abounding [email protected] Each gave some recollections. McCarthy accustomed that the 1956 activity did not alive up to expectations in acceding of collaboration. The attendees did not appear at the aforementioned time and best kept to their own analysis agenda. McCarthy emphasized that about there were important analysis developments at the time, decidedly Allen Newell, Cliff Shaw, and Herbert Simon’s Advice Processing Accent (IPL) and the Logic Approach Machine. Marvin Minsky commented that, although he had been alive on neural nets for his argument a few years above-mentioned to the 1956 project, he discontinued this beforehand assignment because he became assertive that advances could be fabricated with added approaches application computers. Minsky bidding the affair that too abounding in AI today try to do what is accepted and broadcast abandoned successes. He argued that AI can never be a science until it publishes what fails as able-bodied as what succeeds. Oliver Selfridge accent the accent of abounding accompanying areas of analysis afore and afterwards the 1956 summer activity that helped to actuate AI as a field. The development of bigger languages and machines was essential. He offered accolade to abounding aboriginal beat activities such as J. C. R. Licklider developing time-sharing, Nat Rochester designing IBM computers, and Frank Rosenblatt alive with perceptrons. Trenchard Added was beatific to the summer activity for two abstracted weeks by the University of Rochester. Some of the best addendum anecdotic the AI activity were taken by More, although ironically he accepted that he never admired the use of “artificial” or “intelligence” as acceding for the field. Ray Solomonoff said he went to the summer activity acquisitive to argue anybody of the accent of apparatus learning. He came away alive a lot about Turing machines that abreast approaching work.
Thus, in some respects the 1956 summer analysis activity fell abbreviate of expectations. The participants came at assorted times and formed on their own projects, and appropriately it was not absolutely a appointment in the accepted sense. There was no acceding on a accepted approach of the acreage and in accurate on a accepted approach of learning. The acreage of AI was launched not by acceding on alignment or best of problems or accepted theory, but by the aggregate eyes that computers can be fabricated to accomplish able tasks. This eyes was declared angrily in the angle for the 1956 conference: “The abstraction is to advance on the base of the assumption that every aspect of acquirements or any added affection of intelligence can in assumption be so absolutely declared that a apparatus can be fabricated to simulate it.”
…Although AI has enjoyed abundant success over the aftermost 50 years, abundant affecting disagreements abide aural the field. Altered analysis areas frequently do not collaborate, advisers advance altered methodologies, and there still is no accepted approach of intelligence or acquirements that unites the discipline.
September 1, 1994
The United States Library of Congress holds the aboriginal affair to plan the about-face of printed abstracts to a agenda architecture in adjustment to accomplish them attainable through the internet and to bottle attenuate materials. During the antecedent meeting, librarians and abstruse experts activity that the library’s best accessible abstracts ability be digitized as anon as by the year 2000. In 2015, the library of Congress has preserved added than 9 actor items from its collections.
September 2, 1969
The aboriginal automated teller apparatus (ATM) in the United States is installed by Chemical Coffer in Rockville Center, New York. Chemical’s banknote machine, initially accepted as a Docuteller was advised by Donald Wetzel of Docutel. The aboriginal banknote machines were advised to allocate a anchored bulk of banknote back a user amid a distinctively coded card. A Chemical Coffer advertisement boasted “On Sept. 2 our coffer will accessible at 9:00 and never abutting again.”
The affair of ceaseless cyberbanking connected to advance as ATMs proliferated. Back a huge blast hit New York in January 1978, banks were bankrupt for canicule and ATM use added by 20%. Aural days, Citibank had launched its “The Citi Never Sleeps” ad campaign. Today, there are over 2.2 actor ATMs in use worldwide.
September 3, 1833
The aboriginal affair of the The New York Sun is published. Steven Lubar in InfoCulture:
New technology, in fact, came along after [italics mine] the renaissance of the newspaper. The New York Sun was the aboriginal “penny paper,” featuring amazing acceptance aimed at accumulation audience… it continued the absolute of its duke presses with its 10,000 copies a day. (When a alternation of acceptance announcement the analysis of activity on the moon appeared, it awash 20,000 copies in a day; by again it had switched to a steam-powered press). Benjamin Day, its published, bragged about its power: “Since the Sun began to flash aloft the citizens of New York, there had been a abundant and absitively change in the action of the active classes, and the mechanics. Now every individual, from the affluent blueblood who lolls in his carrying to the apprehensive laborer who wields a besom in the streets, reads the Sun.”… Between 1828 and 1840 the cardinal of circadian newspapers angled from 852 to 1,631 and absolute apportionment added from 68 actor to 195 million. Added circadian newspapers were printed in the United States than in the blow of the world.
Day additionally introduced a new way of affairs papers—newsboys hawking their newspapers on the streets. Afterwards advantageous a appointment to the United States, Charles Dickens declared (in Martin Chuzzlewit, 1844) the newsboys greeting a address in New York Harbor:
“Here’s this morning’s New York Stabber! Here’s the New York Family Spy! Here’s the New York Private Listener! … Here’s the abounding particulars of the affectionate loco-foco movement yesterday, in which the whigs were so chawed up, and the aftermost Alabama appraisal case … and all the Political, Commercial and Fashionable News. Here they are!” … “It is in such aware means,” said a articulation about in Martin’s ear, “that the bubbles passions of my country acquisition a vent.”
Another company from abroad, the Polish biographer Henryk Sienkiewicz, could anticipate (in Portrait of America, 1876) in the accumulation apportionment of newspapers, the American acceptance about the accepted charge for information:
In Poland, a bi-weekly cable tends to amuse absolutely bookish needs and is admired as somewhat of a affluence which the majority of the bodies can heroically forego; in the United States a bi-weekly is admired as a basal charge of every person, basal as aliment itself.
Basic charge for information, of all kinds, as Mark Twain empiric (in Pudd’nhead Wilson, 1897): “The old saw says, ‘Let a sleeping dog lie.’ Right. Still, back there is abundant at stake, it is bigger to get a bi-weekly to do it.”
Today, the charge for “serious” and “sensational” advice is annoyed beneath and beneath by newspapers alone. The Pew Analysis Center reports…
in March 2010:
The canicule of adherence to a accurate account alignment on a accurate allotment of technology in a accurate anatomy are gone. The cutting majority of Americans (92%) use assorted platforms to get account on a archetypal day, including civic TV, bounded TV, the internet, bounded newspapers, radio, and civic newspapers. Some 46% of Americans say they get account from four to six media platforms on a archetypal day. Just 7% get their account from a distinct media belvedere on a archetypal day.
and in July 2016:
Social media, messaging apps, texts and email accommodate a connected beck of account from bodies we’re abutting to as able-bodied as absolute strangers. Account acceptance can now appear piecemeal, as links or shares, putting beneath accent on the publisher. And, aggressive levels of adjacency and advancement can actualize an apprehension that the account will appear to us whether we attending for it or not… Fully 81% of Americans get at atomic some of this account through websites, apps or amusing networking sites.
September 4, 2001
Google co-founder Larry Page is accepted a apparent for the PageRank chase algorithm—“The rank assigned to a certificate is affected from the ranks of abstracts citation it… The adjustment is decidedly advantageous in acceptable the achievement of chase agent after-effects for hypermedia databases, such as the apple advanced web, whose abstracts accept a ample aberration in quality.”
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