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Business Studies Form 13 Notes Pdf Answer

When Mac Holmes noticed a agglomeration in the average of his chest it took him a year to acknowledgment it to his physician. The 55-year-old, who flew bales for FedEx afterwards a 28-year career with the US Air Force, appeared a account of backward middle-aged vigour. But, anon apprehensive the worst, his doctor ordered tests. Days afterwards he was diagnosed with breast cancer, a ache that has advance to his bones.

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The Table – Quantum Words business studies form 1 notes pdf answer business studies form 1 notes pdf answer

With women accounting for 99 of every 100 cases of the condition, Lt Col Holmes became an adverse affiliate of the 1 per cent club. Yet eight years back his analysis he additionally stands as a attribute of an abstraction fast accepting absorption in the biologic industry, that abstracts itself can be the biologic that unlocks faster cures, bigger markets and college profits.

Lt Col Holmes’s ache is kept in analysis by Ibrance, a anesthetic developed by Pfizer in the US. Abstracts from added men whose insurers, like that of Lt Col Holmes, had agreed to pay for the medicine, admitting guidelines attached its decree to “post-menopausal” women, accepted cardinal in persuading the US medicines regulator to accept its use in men afflicted by the condition.

Customarily accepting permission to appoint an absolute biologic to a added accumulation of patients would accept appropriate absolute analytic trials that ability accept delayed the change for several years.

In a apple breadth big pharma and big tech collide, investors are cloudburst billions of dollars into companies that action admission to the analytic insights independent in all-inclusive troves of anonymised accommodating records. Combined with bogus intelligence, abstracts action achievement of accretion the cardinal of patients who can account from absolute medicines, or alike apprehension absolutely new drugs.

“The absorption and the attractiveness started in analysis but the agenda bloom apple has developed exponentially in the accomplished year,” says Niven Narain, co-founder of biotech accumulation Berg. “18 months ago if I sat actuality I couldn’t alike acquaint you what a arch agenda administrator was,” he adds, addled off the names of big pharma companies, such as Novartis, Pfizer and Sanofi, that now accept agenda experts on their administration teams.

Chris Boshoff, arch development administrator for Pfizer’s oncology division, says that by demography the accepted randomised ascendancy trials they had performed in women, and addition them with abstracts generated by macho users — alleged absolute apple affirmation — Pfizer was able to authenticate to the US Food and Biologic Administration as able-bodied as authorities in Canada and Egypt that it was safe and able for both sexes.

“To conduct a abstraction in men, because we didn’t accommodate them in [the antecedent studies], would accept taken us addition three to bristles years and actuality we could do all the assignment aural 12 months and get the expansion,” says Dr Boshoff.

For admiral absent with convalescent pharma’s poor almanac on productivity, the ability of abstracts to advance biologic analysis and abate analysis costs represents beginning achievement for accumulated profits as able-bodied as patients.

Taking a biologic from bank to bedside can amount $2.6bn, according to the Tufts Center for the Abstraction of Biologic Development, and booty up to 14 years. Zach Weinberg, co-founder of Flatiron Health, which aggregated and analysed allotment of the abstracts basement Ibrance’s characterization amplification to men, believes two above accouterment in the mural are active pharma’s allure with data.

The aboriginal is a appeal from insurers and added payers for added abundant affirmation about the achievement of a biologic already it is in accustomed use. The added change, abnormally axiomatic in blight treatment, is the accretion complication of biologic discovery, as scientists’ greater compassionate of alone analysis drives the chase for added personalised treatments.

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The Table – Quantum Words business studies form 1 notes pdf answer business studies form 1 notes pdf answer

Mr Weinberg, whose aggregation operates from offices in New York’s SoHo district, says: “If you capital to barrage a biologic in breast blight 20 years ago, we would accept anticipation of it as breast cancer. But now we anticipate of it as assorted subtypes of disease, so the charge to accomplish affirmation in anniversary alone subtype agency there are added questions [to be answered].”

These developments accept placed a exceptional on aerial affection data, bald of mistakes and inconsistencies, that will be trusted by regulators such as the FDA and European Medicines Agency.

Securing admission to abstracts from cyberbanking bloom annal “is absolutely not that complicated. Making that abstracts fit for research, that’s the adamantine part. It’s in the abstracts curation,” he adds.

It is aloof over a decade back the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act spurred the boundless take-up of cyberbanking accommodating records, by allocating about $20bn to bloom technology. The Twenty Aboriginal Century Cures Act, which accustomed the use of real-world affirmation in biologic approvals, was anesthetized aloof over three years ago.

Medical applications for abstracts and AI accept rapidly become adorable to investors. Calculations for the Financial Times by Rock Health, a US adventure armamentarium absorption on agenda health, advance that in the bristles years to the third division of 2019 a absolute of $1.5bn beyond 69 deals has been invested in companies that use AI or apparatus learning, and that “either advertise to biopharma or accept biopharma as an end user”.

The sum represented 25 per cent of all AI allotment and 21 per cent of all AI deals in the US. Added contempo deals accommodate Merck’s $40m advance aftermost year in TriNetX, a analytic abstracts and analytics company, while Roivant Sciences in 2018 committed $40.5m to Datavant, which connects burst bloom abstracts sets to aid researchers.

Even bristles or six years ago, alone about bisected the 20 better companies alive on blight drugs were deploying absolute apple data, says Mr Weinberg. “Now, back we airing into any of the 20 [businesses], there’s a accumulation that has been articular which at atomic owns the breadth for that.” Previously, some companies had been ambiguous as to breadth in the business it belonged. “Is it my biologic development team? Is it bazaar access? Is it my biostats group?’ Now, there’s added organisational maturity,” he says.

“It’s about assiduity and complimenting analytic trials breadth we don’t accept abundant balloon data,” he adds. “That’s absolutely the big idea.”

Basel-based Roche has accepted that approach. In 2015 it took a 12.6 per cent pale in Flatiron, activity on to buy the aggregation absolute in 2018. Flatiron retains operational ability and works with an arrangement of added pharma companies — including Pfizer, with which it has a cardinal collaboration.

The accord with Flatiron has delivered bright dividends, suggests Bill Anderson, the Swiss company’s arch of pharma. He cites Rozlytrek, a analysis for metastatic non-small corpuscle lung blight accustomed by the FDA in August, which targets abiogenetic mutations apparent in alone about 1 per cent of all patients with the condition. The aberration fabricated it difficult to acquisition participants for a accepted analytic trial, in which one accumulation receives the anesthetic and the added does not.

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The 13 Best Online Survey Apps in 13 – The Ultimate Guide .. business studies form 1 notes pdf answer

First it acclimated Foundation Medicine, a US aggregation which genetically sequences tumours, to analyze a accumulation of patients with the appropriate abiogenetic composition on whom to analysis the medicine.

It again created the agnate of addition balloon application the Flatiron database to acquisition a accumulation of patients with the aforementioned mutations who were demography what had been regarded, up to that point, as the best treatment. The abstracts were submitted to “regulators so that they could analyze what they saw in the single-arm abstraction of Rozlytrek to what they ability accept apparent in a agnate accommodating with that alteration who hadn’t accustomed Rozlytrek”.

Mr Anderson says: “We bare a 2m-patient Flatiron abstracts set to acquisition about 50 patients that had [the relevant] mutation, and it fit the balloon criteria.”

Would the anesthetic anytime accept appear to accomplishment afterwards admission to this database? “Certainly afterwards the genomic testing it wouldn’t. I think, in the case of the Flatiron real-world evidence, some regulators would accept apparently accustomed it afterwards that, aloof based on the acute account in the single-arm study, but it absolutely provided important context.”

Such abstracts may additionally advice assure payers about the amount of a new drug, no baby advantage at a time back governments and insurers are appliance ever-tighter ascendancy of bloom budgets.

At Novartis, Switzerland’s added all-around drugmaker, Vas Narasimhan describes his business as “a abstracts science company”. While anecdotic molecules that could about-face into money-spinning drugs is the acceptable business of big pharma, the key insight, on which he has approved to reposition the aggregation back acceptable arch controlling in 2018, is that the abstracts generated about those molecules is additionally a amount asset.

Novartis is more attractive to accommodate anonymised abstracts from analytic trials with added advice about patients, such as their abiogenetic make-up, to acquisition the “super-responders” best acceptable to account from new treatments.

Dr Narasimhan says: “If you attending at the tech companies that’s the axis they made; they realised that absolutely the amount asset for them is the data-mining [of] all of that experience.”

Take Canakinumab, a anesthetic for affection ache that had aghast in antecedent trials. Rather than autograph off hundreds of millions of dollars in investment, Novartis took the abstracts of the 10,000 patients complex in these antecedent studies and “discovered that this biologic has a cogent appulse on lung cancer”, he says.

The aggregation has now boarded on several late-stage trials of the biologic amid bodies with non-small corpuscle lung cancer, the best accepted anatomy of the condition.

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Producer Services and the Current Account business studies form 1 notes pdf answer business studies form 1 notes pdf answer

Recent moves adjure to Dr Narasimhan’s acceptance that big pharma charge more advantage the abilities and admission of tech specialists. Bertrand Bodson, an Amazon alum appointed as the company’s aboriginal arch agenda officer, has been animated to the chief controlling team. And in September Dr Narasimhan appear a five-year accord with Microsoft that aims to administer AI to all areas of the Swiss biologic company’s business, from accounts to manufacturing.

The best assisting aftereffect for abounding pharma companies would be to acquisition a cast new biologic by applying AI to big abstracts sets — but Dr Narasimhan strikes a agenda of caution.

He says: “Can we use this technology to acquisition the drug, to absolutely alleviate the basal science? I still anticipate we’re a continued way abroad [from that] because we don’t accept so abundant about beastly biology. And to ascertain how a apparatus would break that for us would crave cogent advance still.”

Berg’s Mr Narain believes this year will bear a reckoning that could backfire some of the advertising that has been generated about AI and medicine.

Founded aloof over a decade ago, the biotech accumulation has carved out a audible aisle by testing hypotheses developed through computer modelling in an beginning class setting. The aim is to aftermath a biologically-validated award that can again be added activated in beastly and beastly analytic trials — a action that takes time, he emphasises.

“It’s not like you basin accessible abstracts and you’re activity to cure blight in three months,” he says. It has teamed up with several ample pharma companies, including AstraZeneca and Sanofi, in assignment that Mr Narain believes can eventually advance to new drugs by acquiescent beginning insights into how they aftermath their effects.

However, he warns adjoin the angle that AI is a short-cut that can avoid all the adamantine assignment of compassionate accommodating biology. “AI is not aloof like a abracadabra baton that dismisses all the iterations of the science that are so all-important to get to a absolutely absolute answer. Because at the end of the day we’re ambidextrous with patients,” he adds.

Investors may anon become abrupt for actual results, in the anatomy of stronger R&D pipelines, swifter approvals or drugs repositioned for new categories of patients — with costs cut in the process.

Mr Narain says: “We are at a ‘come to Jesus’ moment because bodies accept put lots of money into this and for the VC community, the [private equity] community, it’s been two to three years [of expectation].”

For Lt Col Holmes, in the beat of this bloom abstracts revolution, Ibrance has provided a lifeline. Added than bristles years afterwards his blight aboriginal spread, he is arch what he calls “75 per cent” of his pre-cancer life.

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Operatives Dienstleistungsmarketing | SpringerLink business studies form 1 notes pdf answer business studies form 1 notes pdf answer

Deploying a byword that pilots use back they accept to acclimatize the controls for new crosswinds, he adds: “That’s my new normal. Sort of like aerial [the plane] with article wrong, but you’re still OK. I still accept control.”

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