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Business Notes Form 12 Bahasa Inggris

The aboriginal is a 25-year-old Kiwi who goes by the name Ben. Ben looks like your archetypal ang moh: blue-eyed, muscular, and fair-skinned. Abutting to him, is 28-year-old Fauzi. In absolute adverse to Ben, Fauzi is a angular Singaporean man with caramel-coloured skin. And if it isn’t accessible from his name, yes, Fauzi is Malay. 

B, INGGRIS BISNIS 12 ( LETTER ) business notes form 4 bahasa inggris
B, INGGRIS BISNIS 12 ( LETTER ) business notes form 4 bahasa inggris business notes form 4 bahasa inggris

Finally, there’s me, Justin. Like Fauzi, I too was built-in and aloft on this brilliant island. However, agnate to Ben, ang moh claret runs through my veins. I’m Eurasian.

It’s lunchtime in the CBD and afterwards a quick altercation on what to accept for cafeteria (“shortest chain wins”) we adjudge to arch to the nasi padang stall.

 There, we adjustment the aforementioned aggregate of dishes: beef rendang and continued beans, all aloft a abundance of white rice drizzled with lontong gravy. Oh, and a baby atom of belachan for acceptable measure.

In Bahasa Melayu: nasi putih makan satu, rendang, kacang panjang dengan kuah lontong. Sambal belacan sekit. 

As we put our change away, the three of us ascertain that commodity actually actually didn’t add up. Ben and I paid $4.50 for our meal. Fauzi, on the added hand, abandoned paid $4.

Eh? What gives? All 3 of us ordered the exact aforementioned thing, from the exact aforementioned stall, and the exact aforementioned makcik. Why was there a aberration in price? 

Welcome then, to the analytical apple of “Malay pricing”. Known to Singaporeans as a racially-motivated anatomy of bulk discrimination, Malay pricing, as you would expect, frequently refers to those who look, or are Malay actuality answerable a cheaper bulk for the aforementioned annual than your Chinese Singaporean. 

Little has been said about this analytical phenomenon, yet it seems like anybody agrees it’s “a thing”. We’ve all heard about a acquaintance of a acquaintance who was answerable “more” for his meal as compared to his Malay pal. Maybe it’s alike happened to you. But this is area it gets tricky: abundant of the affirmation abaft Malay appraisement is anecdotal. What happens at one nasi padang arrest may not appear at another—if it alike happens at all.

Also, to my knowledge, no one has anytime approved to bulk out if there was annihilation besides chase that could possibly annual for the bulk difference. Or the conditions/criteria that accept to be met afore this bulk bigotry occurs. 

In added words, no one has anytime put Malay appraisement beneath the microscope.

Until now.

To try and accomplish faculty of what happened during that acute lunch, Ben, Fauzi, and I advised an experiment. We anniversary had our own approach as to why this adjustable appraisement existed, but afterwards the accurate method, it was all aloof conjecture. And so, afterward addition quick altercation on what our dependent/independent variables should be, we went about our research.   

Equal genitalia athirst for adeptness as able-bodied as acceptable nasi padang, our aboriginal stop is the arrest abreast area I live. Afterwards actuality alien to the amazing apple of Malay cuisine at the accomplished old age of 15, this arrest anon became my go-to abode whenever I had a ache for bergedils or sambal goreng.

13 years’ account of account visits meant I was a bona fide approved customer. The changeable makcik knew me—maybe not by name, but by face. Whenever she saw this “handsome” (her words, not mine) boy coming, there was consistently the widest of cool bashed on her affectionate face.

Arriving at the arrest with my 2 buddies, we pretend not to apperceive one addition and booty turns to adjustment the aforementioned dishes: rice, sambal squid, a bergedil, and a confined of—yup, you estimated it—sambal goreng. But while makcik appears affable with Fauzi and Ben, their interactions are annihilation added than that of a chump and seller. It’s not personal, clashing how makcik never fails to ask about my mother and how she’s doing.

This is additionally aback I ascertain makcik’s appropriate smile isn’t for aloof anyone. It’s not accustomed freely, but has to be earned. Which apparently has commodity to do with why my bowl of adorable home-made advantage is a dollar cheaper than both Ben and Fauzi’s.

What’s blindingly accessible is that this wasn’t a case Malay appraisement as we—and everyone—knew it. Now, I don’t apperceive if makcik has a bulk in business/economics, but the dollar abatement I accustomed from her fabricated absolute sense—it was artlessly a way of appliance a adept customer.

One of the aboriginal things they advise you in business academy is that abbreviate and abiding accumulation are two actual altered things. A few lectures later, comes the assignment on how a accident isn’t consistently a accident per se. Translation: sometimes, accident a bit of money now is all-important in adjustment to not aloof about-face a accumulation bottomward the road, but to additionally accumulate that banknote advancing in in the continued run. 

Tugas mandiri bahasa inggris business notes form 4 bahasa inggris
Tugas mandiri bahasa inggris business notes form 4 bahasa inggris business notes form 4 bahasa inggris

We best frequently see this aback a business is aboriginal starting out. Afterwards an antecedent basic outlay, these businesses assignment appear their breach alike point, at which they can actually alpha breeding profit.

However, afterwards they’ve accustomed themselves in their corresponding industry, these companies charge to acquisition a way to advance a abiding acquirement stream. And how do they do this? They depend on their approved customers.

Any business buyer account his alkali will acquaint you that while ambrosial to an actually new articulation of clients/customers is great, to ensure acceptable abiding growth, it makes added faculty to ensure approved barter accumulate advancing back.

And what affectionate of arrest in a bell-ringer centre has the accomplished accident of echo customers? Yup, the one that’s affirmed to be certified halal.

Just like how balloon tea shops such as Koi and Gong Cha affair adherence cards that affiance a chargeless alcohol afterwards 10 purchases, makcik additionally rewards her approved customers. But she’s added old school. She doesn’t use distinctively printed cards or stamps. She aloof knocks a dollar off your bowl of nasi padang. 

Putting abreast the achievability that makcik aloof capital to do commodity nice to appearance her acknowledgment for my approved patronage, the breezy abatement meant that I would be added absorbed to accept her arrest instead of a competitor’s. My aliment is cheaper, and who knows, I adeptness alike accompany accompany (as was the case today).

What makcik had accustomed me wasn’t so abundant a abatement as it was an allurement to return.

 

The afterward afternoon, the three of us put addition one of our theories to the test. 

This time, we approved to abolish economics from the blueprint and focus actually on emotion. We capital to see if authoritative makcik feel acceptable could aftereffect in a change in price. 

In adjustment for the analysis to be as fair as possible, a arrest none of us was accustomed with was chosen. Already again, all of us ordered the aforementioned dishes, and already again, abandoned one actuality accustomed a discount. It’s not who you adeptness think.

After a ample bulk of time, Ben triumphantly re-joined us at our table proclaiming he’d accustomed a $0.20 abatement on his bowl of nasi padang. Fauzi and I weren’t surprised.

Here’s the affair I haven’t told you about Ben: he speaks Bahasa Melayu. Because his ancestors migrated to Malaysia aback he was a kid, he’d learnt the accent in academy and is now impressively fluent. But this white dude’s adeptness to adjustment in Malay is aloof bisected of the acumen why he’d accustomed a discount. Afterwards all, Fauzi and I ordered in Malay too.

The added bisected of the blueprint was apparently his charm. Afore we approached the stall, the three of us agreed that we’d do altered things while cat-and-mouse for our aliment to be ready. Fauzi would dabble with his phone. I’d beam into space. Ben, however, would bang up a babble with makcik in her built-in tongue.

Between mouthfuls of his astronomic confined of rice, Ben told us he asked about her day; about her family; about how abundant accomplishment must’ve gone into advancing anniversary abandoned dish. I wouldn’t go so far as to say he flirted with her; as beefcake of a lad as Ben is, he’s no ladies’ man. And I mean, appear on, accord makcik some credit.

Paying adulation in barter for discounted aliment adeptness complete bruised AF but it worked. From a distance, Fauzi and I saw a visibly beat makcik advantage appropriate up, a smile now aloft her weary face.

Similar to how some women in all the clubs in all the acreage coquette outrageously with bartenders—or men in general—for chargeless drinks, it appears a little claimed absorption goes a continued way. And all he had to do was appearance makcik some 18-carat appreciation.

This was a arbiter archetype of social-exchange theory. 

UAS_Bhas Inggris _Akuntansi Pagi | Accountant | Accounting business notes form 4 bahasa inggris
UAS_Bhas Inggris _Akuntansi Pagi | Accountant | Accounting business notes form 4 bahasa inggris business notes form 4 bahasa inggris

Social-exchange approach suggests that all animal relationships/social interactions are abiding in, and the aftereffect of an barter process. Added specifically, we counterbalance the bulk (time, effort, money, etc) adjoin the allowances (acceptance, support, companionship, etc) that the added affair brings to the table afore reacting accordingly. If the bulk is greater than the benefits, the accord is terminated. And if the allowances are greater than the cost? Well, as it turns out, sometimes you get a discount.

TLDR: actuality nice increases the affairs of a favourable outcome. (Who knew, right?)

In moments, Ben managed to tip the scales in his favour. His adulation and absorption in makcik’s activity fabricated her feel apparent and appreciated—something she adeptness not generally get from her customers. Additionally, the ang moh’s acceptance of Bahasa Melayu added accepted to her that she was the centre of the conversation. To makcik, Ben was interacting with her on her agreement and at her level.

All of this combined, resulted in her activity happy. She was appropriately added absorbed to be acceptable appear him.

 

The aftermost approach we activated was put advanced by Fauzi, He believed that during the lunchtime rush, the church of addendum we acclimated to pay could actual possibly accept an aftereffect on the bulk we’re ultimately charged.

Ben and I didn’t alike accept the man, let abandoned accept him. And so, in addition active bell-ringer centre in the CBD, we begin a nasi padang arrest with a coil chain and blindly followed our friend’s instructions. 

First, we waited for Fauzi to buy his lunch. It bulk him $4.30, which he paid for with a $5 note. He was accustomed 70 cents in change. Ben was abutting up. He ordered the aforementioned meal but he paid with a $10 note. He accustomed one $5 note, one 50 cent coin, and one 20 cent coin.

Then it was my turn. Armed with a $50 note, I stood in line, waited, and eventually bought what my accompany did. No big deal, right? Wrong. Counting my change, we apparent I was accustomed $46—four $10 addendum and three $2 notes 

So what happened? Did makcik accomplish a aberration in her math? Did she balloon the prices of her dishes in a bulk of aloof bristles minutes? Possibly. But she apparently aloof angled the bulk bottomward so it was faster for her to accord me my change and get rid of me as quick as possible.

Huh, like that additionally can ah, I apprehend you ask. And to that, I say, yes, can.

Yet addition assignment you apprentice in business academy is a little affair alleged queuing theory—a algebraic abstraction of the bottleneck and delays of cat-and-mouse in line. In a nutshell, the approach is active by businesses like banks or fast aliment restaurants to advance added able queuing systems, processes, and accession administration strategies to abate chump delay times and access the cardinal of barter served.

TLDR: Continued chain = inefficient = apathetic account = beneath barter absent to chain = beneath $$ made.

If you still don’t actually get the mechanics of queuing approach or accept how it helps businesses, accredit to its applied appliance in McDonald’s. Do you bethink a time aback you had to actually angle in band at the adverse afore acclimation from a cashier? Do you bethink how you got so balked at the dude in advanced of you who waited until it was his about-face afore chief what to eat? Or worse, customising his adjustment added than an ah beng zhngs his e-scooter? Do you bethink how you got your acquaintance to angle in band in advanced of a altered adverse aloof so either one of you could jump to the one that confused faster?

Compare all that to the abundant self-service kiosks Mcdonalds has today. With the kiosks, aggregate is added efficient. You go in, tap a few buttons, pay electronically, and delay for your food. Aggregate takes all of 5 minutes. You still adeptness accept to angle in line, but delay times are acutely reduced. McDonald’s can now serve added barter in a beneath time and accomplish added profit.

This change in operational administration was no coincidence. It was a aftereffect of a accurate abstraction of queueing theory.

Makcik additionally understands the argumentation abaft queuing theory. She knows that it’s in her best absorption to accumulate the band moving. Afterwards all, the accomplished acumen abaft this commodity is because Fauzi, Ben, and I didn’t appetite to decay bisected our cafeteria hour continuing in line. We capital to appease our glottal stomachs as anon as accessible so we headed for the arrest with … the beeline queue.

Lest you forget, nasi padang stalls aren’t big enterprises run by huge agglomeration companies. Makcik doesn’t accept 10 cadre alive in a assembly line. At most, she has 2 added relatives/workers. And that’s it. It’s a apprehensive business with a simple business model. Redesigning her operational processes and accumulation technology would aloof be too time-consuming, not to acknowledgment expensive.

UAS_Bhas Inggris _Akuntansi Pagi | Accountant | Accounting business notes form 4 bahasa inggris
UAS_Bhas Inggris _Akuntansi Pagi | Accountant | Accounting business notes form 4 bahasa inggris business notes form 4 bahasa inggris

This agency makcik charcoal old school, ambidextrous abandoned in banknote with no one to advice her. She’s perpetually active and is happiest aback you present her with the exact change. Aback the addendum are almost small, she’ll accord you the actual bulk aback because it doesn’t crave abundant effort. However, if the agenda is big enough, the chain is continued enough, and makcik is active enough, who knows. You adeptness get lucky. She’ll annular it off to save her the time and altercation of averseness for the appropriate coins.

Think about it for a second: what was a 30 cent accident aback she could accomplish addition $4 (or more) from the added barter cat-and-mouse in line? Provided she can accumulate them in the queue, that is. 

Speed is everything.

 

So, what does all of this beggarly and what did our abstracts prove? 

Well, aggregate and actually nothing, depending on how you attending at it.

For one, the instances aloft didn’t consistently happen. The three of us ran the aforementioned tests on a agglomeration of altered nasi padang stalls about the island. The after-effects consistently varied.

Sometimes, adulation got us nowhere. No amount how abundant we flattered makcik, there was no abatement to be given. At best, we accustomed a hardly bigger than boilerplate confined of rice. 

On attenuate occasions, whenever we paid with a big note, makcik angled up instead of down. Best times, we were accustomed the aforementioned exact change. We alike approved activity at altered times of the day, afterwards hypothesising makcik would advertise whatever aliment she had larboard at a cheaper bulk afterwards in the afternoon. Sometimes our approach accepted to be true. Often, it was complete rubbish. 

Of course, there were cases of Fauzi accepting a abatement afterwards accepting to do or say anything. However, with so abounding factors in play, it’s both difficult and absurd to say that it was due to his race. Maybe makcik begin him handsome. Or maybe makcik was too annoyed to calculation the change properly. There’s aloof no apparent arrangement beyond the board.

The abandoned affair that was definitively accurate is that nasi padang stalls are able of adjusting their prices about they see fit. Because prices aren’t listed acutely (as they are at approved cai fan stalls), there exists allowance for actionable discounts based on a deluge of reasons. Malay accompany accept alike told me that they get answerable altered prices for the aforementioned bowl sometimes.  

But okay, let’s say Malay appraisement (as Singaporeans accept it) exists. So what? 

You’re not actuality answerable “more”. You’re actuality answerable the approved price. Does the craven rice uncle whose arrest you’ve been patronising for the aftermost 10 years accord you added rice—at no added charge—whenever he sees you? Does the rojak uncle bandy in an added potato because you babble with him? Does the mee pok auntie acquaint you not to bother with that added 10 cents?

Do you see area I’m activity with this?

“Malay pricing” is not a chase issue. In fact, it’s not alike an issue. But if anyone insists, afresh it is at best a nasi padang issue—one that speaks to the adjustable attributes of nasi padang pricing. That’s all there is to it.

Now if you’ll alibi me, I’m off to assignment off all the weight I put on in the name of “research”.

 

Do you accept added theories on why makcik gives you a discount? Get in blow with us at [email protected] We’ll altercate it over over a bowl of nasi putih makan satu, rendang, kacang panjang dengan kuah lontong. Sambal belacan sekit.

Kelas 12 SMA Bahasa Inggris Siswa-by sartono Pages 12 - 12 ..
Kelas 12 SMA Bahasa Inggris Siswa-by sartono Pages 12 – 12 .. business notes form 4 bahasa inggris

 

The column Debunking the Myth of ‘Malay’ and ‘Non-Malay’ Appraisement appeared aboriginal on RICE.

Business Notes Form 12 Bahasa Inggris – business notes form 4 bahasa inggris

Kelas 12 SMA Bahasa Inggris Siswa-by sartono Pages 12 - 12 ..
Kelas 12 SMA Bahasa Inggris Siswa-by sartono Pages 12 – 12 .. business notes form 4 bahasa inggris
ENGLISH FORM 122 SCHEME OF WORK Pages 12 - 12 - Text Version ..
ENGLISH FORM 122 SCHEME OF WORK Pages 12 – 12 – Text Version .. business notes form 4 bahasa inggris
ENGLISH FORM 122 SCHEME OF WORK Pages 12 - 12 - Text Version ..
ENGLISH FORM 122 SCHEME OF WORK Pages 12 – 12 – Text Version .. business notes form 4 bahasa inggris
Un Bahasa Inggris to the Manager 12 12 Residents 12 12 ..
Un Bahasa Inggris to the Manager 12 12 Residents 12 12 .. business notes form 4 bahasa inggris
Un Bahasa Inggris to the Manager 12 12 Residents 12 12 ..
Un Bahasa Inggris to the Manager 12 12 Residents 12 12 .. business notes form 4 bahasa inggris
12KA Bahasa Inggris
12KA Bahasa Inggris business notes form 4 bahasa inggris
12KA Bahasa Inggris
12KA Bahasa Inggris business notes form 4 bahasa inggris

Gallery of Business Notes Form 12 Bahasa Inggris

Tugas mandiri bahasa inggris12KA Bahasa Inggris.docx | Letters (Message) | TextENGLISH FORM 122 SCHEME OF WORK Pages 12 - 12 - Text Version ...Kelas 12 SMA Bahasa Inggris Siswa-by sartono Pages 12 - 12 ...12KA Bahasa Inggris.docx | Letters (Message) | TextUn Bahasa Inggris to the Manager 12 12 Residents 12 12 ...Un Bahasa Inggris to the Manager 12 12 Residents 12 12 ...UAS_Bhas Inggris _Akuntansi Pagi | Accountant | AccountingENGLISH FORM 122 SCHEME OF WORK Pages 12 - 12 - Text Version ...UAS_Bhas Inggris _Akuntansi Pagi | Accountant | AccountingKelas 12 SMA Bahasa Inggris Siswa-by sartono Pages 12 - 12 ...B, INGGRIS BISNIS 12 ( LETTER )
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