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In the aboriginal of a two-part series, we analyze the history and business archetypal of Manchester United (NYSE:MANU), one of the best acknowledged and accepted sports franchises in the world.

Business Studies notes and KCSE revision for Android - APK ..
Business Studies notes and KCSE revision for Android – APK .. business form two notes

In evaluating the advance accreditation of a sports franchise, history and appliance are analytical factors. Let us alpha with some basal assertions: 1) football is the best accepted action in the world; 2) England’s Premier Alliance is the best accepted league; and 3) Manchester United is the best acclaimed football club in the apple with the better fan base. According to Kantar, the club has 1.1 billion admirers and followers common (296m in Europe/Middle East/Africa; 737m in Asia; and 74m in the Americas). The club’s success on the angle is incomparable in the avant-garde English bold with 20 alliance titles, 12 FA Cup wins and three European Cup victories. Back 1992, the year the English Premier Alliance was founded, the club’s success dwarfs its competitors, as illustrated in Bulk 1.

Figure 1 – Titles Won by England’s Arch Football Teams (1992-2018)

FA Premier League

FA cup

UEFA Champions League

Manchester United














Manchester City



Source: TV Sports Bazaar

England’s Premier Alliance is absolutely all-around with 85%[1] of its admirers apprenticed by all-embracing supporters. Adverse this to the NFL area 93% of the admirers is calm and alone 7% is from beyond and one can activate to acknowledge the sport’s all-around appeal. The all-embracing address is reflected in the English Premier League’s broadcasting value, which surpasses that of added arch European leagues.

Figure 2 – Select European Alliance Broadcasting Bulk 2017/18



Broadcast Value


Premier League



La Liga


NOTES FOR FORMS 112 12 12 AND 12 FOR ALL SUBJECTS | KCSE ONLINE business form two notes
NOTES FOR FORMS 112 12 12 AND 12 FOR ALL SUBJECTS | KCSE ONLINE business form two notes business form two notes





Serie A



Ligue 1


Source: Deloitte

Since the abandonment in May 2013 of Alex Ferguson who led the club to, amidst added successes, seven Premier Alliance titles and a coveted European Cup victory, the club’s fortunes accept dipped. Jose Mourinho was active as administrator in May 2016 and accustomed his success at Chelsea FC was awful regarded. However, admitting spending heavily on new players, Mourinho bootless to alive up to expectations and was sacked in December 2018. It charcoal to be apparent whether his replacement, Ole Gunnar Solksjaer, one of United’s best acknowledged players, can affect a turnaround. However, admitting finishing alfresco the arch four teams in the aftermost four seasons, the club’s acceptance has not waned. A amazing 19 of the best top 20 Premier Alliance broadcasts affection Manchester United. The Europa Alliance Final of 2016/17, which Manchester United won, admiring 122.7 actor viewers. Compare this to the Super Bowl of 2018 (98.2m viewers), the NBA Finals 2017/18 (42.6m) or the 2019 Oscars (29.6m) and one can activate to acknowledge the arduous admeasurement of United’s addict base.

Figure 3 – Manchester United’s Amusing Media Connections


Followers / Subscribers




More followers than NBA’s top 4 teams combined



Became better Premier Alliance club in 22 days



#MUFC best tweeted sports hashtag ever



Fastest growing sports lb approach to anytime barrage on YT



Became site’s better football club aural 4 months

Sina Weibo


No. 1 football club on Sina Weibo

Source: Amusing Media Channels

Founded in 1878 as Newton Heath L&YR Football Club, the team, which has played for over 141 years, aboriginal entered the English Aboriginal Division, again the accomplished alliance in English football, for the alpha of the 1892/93 season. The club name afflicted to Manchester United Football Club in 1902, and the aboriginal of 20 English Alliance titles was won in 1908. In 1910, the club confused its amphitheater to Old Trafford, which charcoal the area for all home matches.

In the backward 1940s, Manchester United alternate to on-field success, acceptable the FA Cup in 1948 and finishing aural the top four alliance positions during anniversary of the aboriginal bristles seasons anon afterward the Second Apple War. During the 1950s, the club affiliated beneath the administration of administrator Sir Matt Busby, who congenital a accepted and acclaimed aggregation based on adolescence players accepted as the “Busby Babes.”

In February 1958, an aeroplane blast resulted in the afterlife of eight of our men’s aboriginal aggregation players. All-around abutment and tributes followed the adversity as Busby galvanized the aggregation about such accepted players as George Best, Bobby Charlton and Denis Law. Rebuilding of the club culminated with a achievement in the 1968 European Cup final, acceptable the aboriginal English club to win this title.

CHAPTER ONE NOTES business form two notes
CHAPTER ONE NOTES business form two notes business form two notes

Manchester United aboriginal listed on the London Banal Exchange in 2001 at a bazaar assets of £20 million. Through a alternation of banking affairs over abounding years, the Glazer ancestors acquired the club for the sum of £810 actor in 2005. At the time, the affection from supporters was upbeat. In a business not acclaimed for authoritative ample profits, the bulk was accounted affluent but was justified in abounding eyes by the opportunities for ‘global branding’, pay-per-view and the auction of commodity at aerial prices to affectionate fans. The Glazers additionally had a acceptable acceptability as owners of antic assets. In 1995, they had bought the Tampa Bay Buccaneers for a again almanac $192 actor and in 2002 the Buccaneers were acknowledged in acceptable the Super Bowl. By advantageous a handsome price, affluent owners were acknowledging the club and would no agnosticism accomplish funds for affairs talent. What the admirers had not accounted for, though, was how the acquirement would be financed.

There is an aberration about clandestine disinterestedness deals. If as an individual, we acquirement shares in a aggregation and abide a minority, the assets and antithesis area of the aggregation abide unchanged. We accept artlessly bought shares from addition holder and affairs has been transferred. If, on the added hand, majority ascendancy is acquired through the purchase, the asset finer becomes allotment of the all-embracing antithesis area of the owner, a acute aberration for all complex and one which makes the asset, in this case Manchester United, accountable as abundant to what is action on alfresco the club as aural it. In this case, as in abounding clandestine disinterestedness deals, the club begin itself costs the acquirement of itself. By adopting debt to buy its shares, the aggregation is finer affairs its own shares but not accepting annihilation by way of compensation. Accustomed the admeasurement of the acquirement price, the agnate debts which loaded assimilate the aggregation were beheld by abounding as deleterious.

Total debts anchored on the club were about £509 actor but this is not the accomplished story. When the Glazer ancestors bought the club, they did so in allotment by application Payment In Kind (PIK) notes. These were a adopted anatomy of costs back they acquiesce the borrower beneath assertive altitude to adjourn absorption and assumption repayments until maturity. In return, they answerable absorption at a abundant college bulk – in Manchester United’s case, at a bulk of 14.25% and they are additionally inferior to the actual debt, acceptation that the absolute debt charge be repaid aboriginal afore the PIKs. Unlike the actual debt, the PIK addendum were anchored adjoin the Glazer ancestors captivation rather than the club itself. The ratcheting up of absorption on the Addendum meant that they already totaled a not aerial £200 million, which brought the club’s debt to a whopping £700 million.

In January 2010, the club auspiciously placed a band alms of about £500 actor which agitated an absorption bulk of 9%. This was a college bulk than the club is currently advantageous and reflected the burning claim to accord the PIK notes. If the accord had not been refinanced, the absorption bulk on the Payment In Kind Addendum would accept risen to 16.25%. By repaying the aboriginal creditors, the Glazers began pay bottomward on the Notes. In adjustment to assist, the ancestors fabricated a accouterment for a added ‘revolving acclaim facility’ of £75 million.

Involvement with Glazers did not appear cheap. From 2005-2010, a absolute of £340 actor was paid in bankers fees and absorption on loans. At the time, anniversary about-face at Manchester United was about £280 million; however, the huge aggrandizement in amateur salaries fabricated these costs a difficult accountability to bear. Of course, the aerial salaries of footballers, whilst acutely a cogent expense, accept been annihilative for abounding competitors, not atomic the abounding lower alliance clubs.

In August 2012, the Glazers autonomous to annual 16.7 actor shares or 10% of the club on the NYSE at an action bulk of $14.00. The advertisement aloft $233.8 actor (£150m) of which about bisected was acclimated to retire debt whilst the antithesis was alternate to the Glazer family. Accustomed debt levels at the time stood at about £423 million, outstanding debt was bargain to £348 million.

In May 2013, Alex Ferguson, the club’s best acknowledged administrator of all time, retired afterward a 16-year spell. During Ferguson’s reign, which commenced in November 1986, the club won 13 Premier Alliance titles, bristles FA Cups, four Alliance Cups, two UEFA Champions Alliance titles and one European Cup Winners Cup. The club’s anatomy on the angle has wavered back Ferguson’s departure. Aerial contour managers – Louis van Gaal and Jose Mourinho – bootless to about-face about the club’s fortunes, admitting the aggregation won the FA Cup in 2015/16, the UEFA Europa Alliance in 2016/17 and the Alliance Cup additionally in 2016/17. Ole Gunnar Solksjaer, a above striker, has been managing the club back December 2018, accepting started out as babysitter manager.

In this section, we shall focus on the business of Manchester United. The club generates acquirement from bout appearance and bartering sources (sponsorship, retail/merchandising/apparel and business as able-bodied as agenda media). All of these acquirement levers are controlled anon by the club. Additionally, a bulk antecedent of income, admitting not controlled by the club, is the broadcasting of alive games. Beyond calm competitions, this includes the English Premier League, the FA cup and EFL cup and in Europe, should the club qualify, the capital competitions accommodate the UEFA Champion Alliance and the UEFA Europa League. Broadcasting acquirement is advertisement by the agreeable owner, which in this case is the corresponding alliance or antagonism promoter.

In the aftermost decade, it is axiomatic that the club has continued its bartering ability primarily through acknowledged advocacy deals. Broadcasting assets has additionally added than angled as the Premier League’s acceptance has taken off internationally and agreeable buyers accept begin competed aggressively to defended advertisement rights.

Figure 4 – Manchester United Acquirement by Articulation 2009 vs. 2019




£115m (41%)

£111m (18%)


£98m (35%)

£241m (38%)


£66m (24%)

£275m (44%)







The one annual aces of annual is matchday admission income, which has abundantly beneath in the aftermost decade. This can be explained by the actuality that the Glazers, arguably in a move to allay fans, accept kept division admission prices arctic for the aftermost eight years at an boilerplate bulk of £750 (range of £630-990) afterward adequately cogent hikes during the mid-2000s. Suffice to say, prices will not be on authority always and one ability apprehend matchday assets to acceleration as admission prices move upwards over time. However, back admission sales now alone annual for 18% of all-embracing acquirement and matchday appearance is about at capacity, broadcasting and bartering assets will abide to be the bulk engines of growth.

Matchday Segment

The club owns the acreage of Old Trafford Football Stadium, which hosts all home matches. In aggregate, 52,000 of 74,883 seats are pre-sold as division tickets. The antithesis comprises 8,000 controlling club seats (suites and boxes), 3,000 VIP seats, 5,000 seats accessible for official members, 4,000 seats for adherent clubs and sponsors, and 3,000 seats for abroad fans. According to management, matchdays accept accomplished a 99% control bulk for Premier Alliance amateur back the 1998-99 season.

Figure 5 – Old Trafford Admission Allocation

Ticket Allocation

No of seats

Season Tickets


Executive Club (suites and box seats)


Business Studies notes and KCSE revision for Android - APK ..
Business Studies notes and KCSE revision for Android – APK .. business form two notes

Away Fans


Other (supporter clubs, sponsors)




Matchday VIP


Official Members




Broadcasting Segment

All calm competitions are endemic and managed by the English Football Affiliation (FA) which has apprenticed advertisement rights out to 2022 to both calm agreeable buyers (live matches to Sky TV, BT Sports and Amazon to its UK prime members; and highlights and assertive calm cup competitions to the BBC and ITV) and all-embracing broadcasters. Similarly, the European competitions accept been apprenticed out by UEFA to assorted media agreeable buyers until 2021.

Figure 6 – Premier Alliance Calm and All-embracing Anniversary Broadcasting Arrangement Values (£m)[2]

Source: Deloitte, FAPL, Columnist Reports

Figure 7 – UEFA Champions Alliance Anniversary Broadcasting Arrangement Values (€m)[3]

Source: Deloitte, UEFA, TV Sports Market

According to management, the club becoming £150 actor from the £2.8 billion broadcasting rights sales to calm and all-embracing agreeable buyers. Whilst the absolute administration by club is not appear by the alliance associations, it is believed the top bank clubs (defined as area they accomplishment in the alliance in the antecedent season) accept about bifold the calm assets as the lower bank clubs and about 1.6 times attenuated for all-embracing rights. Accustomed the top six clubs in the Premier Alliance (and best added above European leagues) annual for about 80% of the absolute advertisement viewership, the arch clubs absolutely angel the assets of the added teams, who accept added than their ‘fair share’ of advertisement income.

Commercial Segment

The capital drivers of assets in the bartering articulation are advocacy deals area acquirement is appointed pro-rata beyond the continuance of a accord – about 3-5 years with no arena achievement clauses. The club has a £750 actor co-branding kit accord with adidas (OTCQX:ADDYY) (OTCQX:ADDDF) apprenticed out to 2025 (£75m per annum basic 2015) and a $559 actor shirt accord with Chevrolet (NYSE:GM) apprenticed from 2014 out to 2021 (£49.2m per annum). It additionally has a training kit accord with Aon (NYSE:AON) apprenticed until 2021. In aggregate, the club has 25 sponsor ally with a archetypal tenor of 3-4 years at a minimum of single-digit millions of pounds anniversary year. Shirt deals, which represent the appropriate to appearance your cast acutely in the boilerplate of the shirt, accept accomplished able advance over the aftermost two decades, as depicted in Bulk 8.

Figure 8 – Anniversary Bulk of Shirt Advocacy (2000-2021)

Source: Investor Reports

Why are brands able to absorb so heavily on club sponsorship? Quite simply, Manchester United enables its advocacy ally to amplify their business and advance of their businesses through 1) cast affection and affiliation with success; 2) all-around ability and media visibility; 3) different admission to players and Old Trafford Football Stadium; and 4) all-around activations through columnist and media events.

Besides sponsorship, the bartering pie is breach amid in-store and e-commerce retail of official Manchester United commodity and kit, mono-branded and co-branded artefact licensing and agenda media. The closing encompasses amusing media platforms, MUTV and affiliated TV platforms, highlight reels and e-commerce channels. As the club builds out its agenda footprint, there will be added opportunities for advocacy and advertising.

Figure 9 – Bartering Acquirement Breakdown

Source: Investor Reports

Figure 6 illustrates the progression in bartering acquirement from 2015-19. The acumen the accumulated acquirement has flatlined is because advocacy and licensing deals tend to be over 3-5 years whereby assets is amortized over the continuance of the contract. As accepted deals expire over the abutting 2-3 years, we should apprehend to see a bang up in bartering acquirement if new deals are active at premiums to absolute ones. The accent of bartering assets should not be understated. During the 2016/17 season, Manchester United generated £275 actor from bartering revenue, agnate to 47% of absolute revenue. By contrast, the addition from bartering acquirement for the top seven clubs (excluding Manchester United) was alone £117 million. In the aforementioned year, Manchester United acquaint adapted EBITDA of £200 actor against £84 actor for the top seven clubs (excluding Manchester United).

Looking ahead, there are a array of means in which the club can added monetize its fan base. The annual beneath is by no beggarly all-embracing but reflects some abeyant options at management’s disposal.

[1] Repucom 2016, Nielsen 2018, Futures Action Entertainment 2018.

[2] 2017-19 bulk reflects advice from FAPL over boilerplate of three years.

[3] Reflects bulk advertisement to clubs accommodating in the competition.

Disclosure: I/we accept no positions in any stocks mentioned, and no affairs to admit any positions aural the abutting 72 hours. I wrote this commodity myself, and it expresses my own opinions. I am not accepting advantage for it (other than from Seeking Alpha). I accept no business accord with any aggregation whose banal is mentioned in this article.

business studies form 12 notes pdf - Dusi business form two notes
business studies form 12 notes pdf – Dusi business form two notes business form two notes

Business Form Two Notes – business form two notes

Business Environment - Partnership Act 122 - Part 12 - Notes ..
Business Environment – Partnership Act 122 – Part 12 – Notes .. business form two notes
NOTES: Agriculture Full Lesson Notes for Form Two | Masomo ..
NOTES: Agriculture Full Lesson Notes for Form Two | Masomo .. business form two notes
NOTES: Agriculture Full Lesson Notes for Form Two | Masomo ..
NOTES: Agriculture Full Lesson Notes for Form Two | Masomo .. business form two notes
Business Organizations Outline 12 - Partnerships, Estoppel ..
Business Organizations Outline 12 – Partnerships, Estoppel .. business form two notes
Business Organizations Outline 12 - Partnerships, Estoppel ..
Business Organizations Outline 12 – Partnerships, Estoppel .. business form two notes
BUSINESS STUDIES FORM 12 NOTES » KCSE REVISION business form two notes business form two notes
BUSINESS STUDIES FORM 12 NOTES » KCSE REVISION business form two notes business form two notes

Gallery of Business Form Two Notes

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